Garrulus glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) sec. Corvids of the World

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Garrulus glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) sec. Corvids of the World

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Editorial Status

Currently not in focus of editorial work, unrevised text, last update: 2016-12-23.

Common Name

English: Eurasian JayA, Red-Crowned JayA; Estonian: pasknäär; German: Eichelhäher; Polish: Sójka

Distribution

Africa Macaronesia (Canary Is. (Canary Is. nativeB), Selvagens (Selvagens nativeB)); Northern Africa (Algeria (Algeria nativeB,C,1), Morocco (Morocco nativeB,C), Tunisia (Tunisia nativeC,D,2)), Asia-Temperate Caucasus nativeB,C; China (China North-Central (Beijing nativeC,D, Gansu doubtfully presentC, Hebei nativeC,D, Shaanxi nativeC,D, Shanxi doubtfully presentC, Tianjin nativeD), China South-Central nativeC,D, China Southeast nativeC,D, Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol doubtfully presentC, Ningxia nativeB), Manchuria nativeC,D,3, Qinghai (Qinghai doubtfully presentC), Tibet (Tibet doubtfully presentC)); Eastern Asia (Japan nativeC,D, Korea nativeC,D, Nansei-shoto (Nansei-shoto nativeD), Taiwan (Taiwan nativeC,D)); Mongolia (Mongolia (Mongolia nativeC,D,4)); Russian Far East (Amur (Amur nativeB,C), Khabarovsk (Khabarovsk nativeB,C,5), Kuril Is. (Kuril Is. nativeC,D,6), Primorye (Primorye nativeC,D), Sakhalin (Sakhalin nativeC,D)); Siberia (Chita (Chita nativeC,D,7), Irkutsk (Irkutsk nativeB,C,8), Krasnoyarsk (Krasnoyarsk nativeB,C,9), West Siberia (West Siberia nativeC,D,10), Yakutskiya (Yakutskiya nativeB,C,11)); Western Asia (Cyprus (Cyprus nativeB,C), East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is. nativeB,C), Iran (Iran nativeC,D,12), Iraq (Iraq nativeC,D,13), Lebanon-Syria nativeB,C, Palestine nativeB,C, Turkey (Turkey nativeB,C)), Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent (Assam nativeC,D, East Himalaya nativeC,D,E,14, Nepal (Nepal nativeC,D,E), Pakistan (Pakistan nativeE,15), West Himalaya nativeC,D,E); Indo-China (Cambodia (Cambodia doubtfully presentC), Laos (Laos nativeD), Myanmar (Myanmar nativeC,D), Thailand (Thailand nativeC,D,16), Vietnam (Vietnam nativeC,D,17)), Europe Eastern Europe nativeB,C,18; Middle Europe nativeB,C; Northern Europe (Denmark (Denmark nativeB,C), Finland (Finland nativeB,C,19), Great Britain (Great Britain nativeB,C), Ireland (Ireland nativeB,C), Norway (Norway nativeB,C,20), Sweden (Sweden nativeB,C,19)); Southeastern Europe nativeB,C; Southwestern Europe (Baleares (Baleares nativeB), Corse (Corse nativeB,C), France (France nativeB,C), Portugal (Portugal nativeB,C), Sardegna (Sardegna nativeB,C), Spain (Andorra nativeB,C, Spain nativeB,C))
1. NW and NE Algeria, 2. N Tunisia, 3. except E, 4. south to Mongolian Altay (48°N) and Changai (47°N), 5. S Khabarovsk, <55°N, 6. S Kurils, 7. N Chita, 8. N Irkutsk, 9. M Krasnoyarsk, <58-59°N, 10. M West Siberia; >55°N <61°N, 11. S Yakutskiya; Western part <58°N, Eastern part <50-51°N, 12. N Iran, 13. W Iraq, 14. at least Nagaland, Manipur and E Meghalaya (Rasmussen & Anderton 2012), 15. N Pakistan (Murree Hills), 16. except S, 17. N and M Vietnam, 18. except N; south to 52°N, 19. except N, 20. SE and M Norway

Foraging

Largely acorns, but forages in all strata.E

Biology And Ecology

Breeding season March to June.E

Nest

Builds a fairly substantial moss and stick nest at mid-height.E

Brood parasite

Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758)F Cuculus canorus subsp. canorus Linnaeus, 1758G

Behaviour

A restless, active species which forms loose bands outside breeding season, oftenjooining with Black-Headed Jays and blue magpies.
Flight laborious with a slightly jerky action, wings almost clapping below body; usually keeps in cover, especially while breeding.E

Ectoparasite

Philopterus garruli Boisduval & Lacordaire, 1835H

Voice

Generally rather silent, but calls reported from the species's wide range include mimicry; varied conversational notes; a lot cu-cr-blink-blink; chorused kler_keee; loud, rapsing, drawn-out shaak, shaak; chuckles and whistling squeals. In Thailand calls include a very harsh, rasping, complaining zZRRAy (zZRRAY) (Centred at 3 kHz, d 0.3-0.75 s, repeated irregularly; BTA); elsewhere a descending, buzzard-like mew pieeeuu (pitch 2.5-1.8 kHz, note d 1 s; Europe). Some regional calls similar to those of Grey Treepie, but higher-pitched (JCA).E

Bibliography

A. Rasmussen, P.C. & Anderton, J.C. 2012: Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide., 2nd edition, 1 and 2: 593 [8772]
B. 1993: Handbuch der Vögel Mitteleuropas13/3: 1380
C. 2003: The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. 3rd Edition: 504-515: 508
D. 1993: Handbuch der Vögel Mitteleuropas13/3: 1382
E. Rasmussen, P.C. & Anderton, J.C. 2012: Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide., 2nd edition, 1 and 2: 594 [8772]
F. Makatsch, W. 1955: Brood parasitism in birds. [Der Brutparasitismus in der Vogelwelt.]: 151 [8672]
G. Makatsch, W. 1955: Brood parasitism in birds. [Der Brutparasitismus in der Vogelwelt.]: 107 [8672]
H. Price & Hellenthal: Taxonomy of Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from the Corvidae (Passeriformes), with descriptions of nine new species. – Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91 (6): 782-799: 786, 796 [78]