Coloeus monedula (Linnaeus, 1758) sec. Droege, G., Corvids of the World

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Coloeus monedula (Linnaeus, 1758) sec. Droege, G., Corvids of the World

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Currently not in focus of editorial work, unrevised text, last update: 2016-12-08.

Common Name

English: Eurasian Jackdaw, JackdawA; Estonian: hakk; German: Dohle; Polish: Kawka, Kawka zwyczajna

Distribution

Africa Northern Africa (Algeria (Algeria nativeB,1), Morocco (Morocco nativeB), Tunisia (Tunisia nativeB)), Asia-Temperate Caucasus nativeB; China (China South-Central (Sichuan nativeA,2), Xinjiang (Xinjiang nativeB)); Middle Asia nativeB; Mongolia (Mongolia (Mongolia nativeB,3)); Siberia (Altay (Altay nativeB), Irkutsk (Irkutsk nativeB,4), Krasnoyarsk (Krasnoyarsk nativeB,5), Tuva (Tuva nativeB), West Siberia (West Siberia nativeB,6)); Western Asia (Afghanistan (Afghanistan nativeA,B,7), Iran (Iran nativeA,B,8), Turkey (Turkey nativeA)), Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent (India (Haryana nativeB, Punjab nativeB, Rajasthan nativeB), Pakistan (Pakistan nativeB,9), West Himalaya (Jammu-Kashmir nativeA,B)), Europe Eastern Europe (East European Russia (East European Russia nativeB), South European Russia (South European Russia nativeB), Ukraine (Ukraine nativeB)); Middle Europe nativeB; Northern Europe nativeB; Southeastern Europe nativeA,B; Southwestern Europe nativeB
1. NW and NE Algeria, 2. Eastern Tibet (today Sichuan), 3. W Mongolia, 4. S Irkutsk, 5. S Krasnoyarsk, 6. S West Siberia, 7. N Afghanistan, 8. N Iran, 9. N Pakistan

Foraging

The birds are commonly seen stalking jauntily about the meadows in company with choughs and starlings, digging up earthworms and crickets, or picking up crumbs around camp and picnic sites.C The Jackdaw is not particular as to what it eats. Grain, fruits, insects, mice, eggs and nestling birds are equally welcome; and the litter of untidy holiday-makers is not despised.C

Nest

The nest is an untidy collection of twigs lined with rags, hair, wool, grass, and other rubbish. It is built in the roofs of houses, holes in walls and hollows in the trunks and boughs of ancient willow and chenar trees. A large hollow chenar may sometimes hold half a dozen nests.C

Egg

The eggs - four to seven - are a pale bluish sea-green, sparsely spotted and speckled with dark brown and purple. The incubation period is said to be 17-18 days.C

Brood parasite

Clamator glandarius (Linnaeus, 1758) Cuculus canorus subsp. canorus Linnaeus, 1758D

Behaviour

It is of a highly social disposition and is seldom seen except in flocks, which may number from twelve or twenty to anything up tp a hundred individuals. IN winter the flocks are particularly large. They are usually tame and fearless, and freely enter the precincts of villages and towns. Large numbers collect to roost at night in the magnificent old chenars in an about the various Baghs near Srinagar, and also in the reed-beds and willow trees about the Wular and Dal Lakes. Great noise prevails before the birds settle down to skeep. The flight is less leisurely than a crow's and rather reminiscent of the pigeon's. The aerial contortions and aerobatics of a flock of Jackdaws disporting themselves high up in the heavens, as they frrequently do, is delightful to watch.
The principal breeding month in Kashmir is May, but eggs may be found in April as well as June.
Both sexes share in building the nest and feeding the young, possibly also in incubation.C

Ectoparasite

Philopterus guttatus (Denny, 1842)E

Voice

Its caw is very different from the raucous note that one is accustomed to wake up with in the plains. It is a rather high-pitched, short and pleasant tschak - sometimes a double note.F

Bibliography

A. Ali, S., Indian Hill Birds. 1949: 2 [2945]
B. The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. 3rd Edition. 2003
C. Ali, S., Indian Hill Birds. 1949: 3 [2945]
D. Makatsch, W., Brood parasitism in birds. [Der Brutparasitismus in der Vogelwelt.]. 1955: 107 [8672]
E. Price & Hellenthal, Taxonomy of Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from the Corvidae (Passeriformes), with descriptions of nine new species. in Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91 (6): 786, 789 [78]
F. Ali, S., Indian Hill Birds. 1949: 2-3 [2945]